The fate of the Cossacks - the heroic, bitter and tragic, still excites society. The basis of the life of an ethnic group living in former times on the outskirts of Russia and the Commonwealth are the firm foundations of Orthodoxy, patriotism, and respect for family traditions and foundations. The strength of these principles is confirmed by the centuries-old military service of the Cossacks, heroic acts, and folklore that has survived to our time.
Don and Kuban Cossacks
In Russia, on January 3, 1870, the 300th anniversary of the creation of the Don Cossack Army was solemnly celebrated. The date January 3, 1570 stands under the welcome letter to the Cossacks of Ivan the Terrible. But the origin of Don quality dates back to the beginning of the 16th century, when Cossack units were part of the troops of Ivan III.
In 1552, the Cossacks participated in the campaign on Kazan. Until 1584 they were considered "free", and this year the Don Cossacks swore allegiance to Tsar Fedor Ivanovich Romanov.
More complex history of the Kuban Cossack army. Its founders, immigrants from the Zaporizhzhya Sich, oppressed for robbery by the Russian tsars. The Cossacks of the Kuban headquarters in Ekaterinodar (now Krasnodar) united free people of many nationalities in their ranks. In addition to Russians and Ukrainians, there were representatives of the peoples of the Caucasus. Thus a separate ethnosocial culture was founded. In 1792, the tsar's decree granted the army lands on the banks of Taman and Kuban for unlimited use. The villages of the Kuban army played the role of the frontier post of Russia in the south.
The Cossack entered military service at the age of 19 and remained on it for 25 years, and only after that he resigned. Military service was determined in the Cossack regiments in 4 years. In addition, once every 5 years, a Cossack was involved in monthly training camps, where he confirmed his fighting skills. He was obliged by order to appear with his weapon, war horse, harness. Tactical exercises were conducted at the training camp, modern weapons were studied, accounting firing was carried out, horse possession was checked.
As the service progressed, the Cossack was promoted in rank, awarded with orders and medals. On examples of courage and heroism of the Cossacks there are many epics and legends. In the memory of grateful descendants, the feats of Ataman M. Platov were forever imprinted in battles with the army of Napoleon, Cossack Kozma Kryuchkov, who served in the First World War and was awarded the first St. George's Cross. A fresh example is the feat of the full George Knight, Hero of the Soviet Union K. I. Nedorubov during the Great Patriotic War, who proved the effectiveness of cavalry in the war of machines.
Cossacks - warriors and tillers. The tsarist government objectively assessed the economic contribution of the Cossacks to the state budget. Cossacks skillfully used new agricultural equipment, fertilizers. The yield on the Cossack allotments was high. Raised from childhood in the traditions of respect for work, they kept the export potential of Russian grain at the proper level. And it was also a service.
How to become a Cossack
In the Cossacks, such a formulation of the question is considered vulgar. The traditional formula in their environment - a Cossack can only be born. Here we talk about loyalty to the memory of ancestors, about the atmosphere of the family, which honors the feats of the fathers, about Orthodoxy - the necessary core of morality. Attempts to revive such an image of education were undertaken: Cossack classes were created in high school, Cossack companies in the modern army were organized, Cossack titles and positions, awards and awards among adherents of ethnic traditions were returned.
But it should be noted that gradually school education is shifting towards the Cadet classes, innovations in the army do not take root too much. We have to admit that there is no great confidence in the revival and new grandeur of the Cossacks in our society. And the decision of the authorities to rehabilitate the Cossacks, who suffered during the civil war, is mostly cosmetic.
Having decided to join the Cossack society, you will need to follow a number of rules:
- The candidate must come of age.
- To be Orthodox.
- To support the ideology of the Cossacks, to know and honor their traditions and customs.
- Be a traditional sexual orientation.
- Have a voluntary desire.
- To join the community, you must apply to the ataman of the nearest village or district association.
- It will require the recommendations of two people who are in the union of two years or more.
- It is also necessary to submit documents on education, military service, awards (if any).
- At the Cossack gathering is a vote. When approved by a majority of votes, a novice is given a probationary period, during which it is necessary to study the articles of association, decrees, rules, instructions, and participate in community activities.
- At the end of the probationary period, if everyone was satisfied, a ritual of initiation takes place, where the priest, chieftain, and all representatives of the association are invited. A novice receives a Cossack ID and permission to carry cold weapons.
- Kazak in translation from Turkic language is a free, independent person.
- The Cossacks formed their "state", called the troops - the Zaporozhian, Don, Chervlyany Yar. From one such military-state, modern Ukraine was formed.
- Cossacks took part in wars on the side of the most diverse peoples: Turks, Poles, Russians, and even Germans.
- Siberia was mastered almost at the expense of the Cossack troops.
- The flag of the Cossacks has three colors: yellow, red, blue. It is a symbol of the unity of three nations - Russians, Kalmyks, Cossacks.
Cossacks in the modern world - features and responsibilities
Today the movement for the revival of the Cossacks is growing. The patriotism of modern Cossacks has become one of the obstacles to the rampant squandering of national wealth. Society as a whole is losing its moral component, and is less and less appreciative of family ties. Therefore, it is important to listen to the voice of the modern Cossacks.
Support in society is also found in the revival of local government. Representatives of the modern Cossacks are actively promoted to local authorities, public organizations, they monitor the upbringing of the younger generation. The Cossacks protect the territory assigned to them, help to restore public order, fight against the indifference of the authorities to the needs of citizens, corruption.