In the spring, when the snow melts, birds fly in, a unique aroma appears in the air, thousands of people rush to nature, to walk and barbeque. But, with good days, insects are dangerous for humans. There are ticks among them, therefore it is necessary to take measures in advance to protect against these pests, in order not to end up in a hospital bed.
When ticks wake up and when they fall asleep
The period of activity of parasites begins with the establishment of a constant positive temperature, with high spring humidity and warming of the earth's surface to 5-8 degrees. As a rule, it is March, April. At this time, the first flowers bloom, leaves only appear on the trees. At the beginning of spring there are not so many of them, and they are not dangerous for people yet. After a long hibernation, ticks look for food and smell the appearance of a suitable object for 10 or even 15 meters. They gain strength by biting birds and animals. They may even attack their brethren, feeding on saturated blood.
Peak tick activity - May. Once on the clothes of a person, they tend to where the skin is thin, delicate. It is behind the ears, on the neck, in the armpits, the elbows and under the knees, the groin area, the head. This month is most active when parasites attack. During this period, you should abandon hiking in the woods or pick up an appropriate protective suit and scaring agents.
The second peak of aggressiveness falls on autumn. They don’t like summer heat, and they breed, and they don’t actively hunt. In the autumn, before winter hibernation, they rush to stock up on nutrients and go hunting again. Ticks fall asleep with the temperature dropping to zero degrees.
Types of ticks
In total, over 40,000 species of ticks have been identified, which are subdivided into 2 main orders.
Detachment number 1. Parasitoform
The first order includes - ixodic, gamazovyh, argasovyh, nuttalievye individuals.
- Ixodic (taiga). Representatives of the species reach a size of up to 2.5 cm, have a hard chitinous coating. They live throughout Eurasia, hiding among green leaves. Parasitic on all warm-blooded animals: birds, animals, people.
- Gamazovye. The size of this arachnid is about 1 mm. The life cycle is short - 7 months. Parasitic on birds and rodents.
- Argasov. They suck blood from birds, domestic animals, humans. The covers are soft, the head goes inside the body. The tick bite is painful, causing terrible itching and rash.
Detachment number 2. Acariform
The order of acariforms includes: scabies, armor-clad, hair, feather, sarcoptiform, freshwater, thyroglyphoid, thrombidiform. Here is a description of some of them.
- Armored do not apply to parasites. They feed on plants, mushrooms, lichens, carrion. For birds and animals are a threat in the form of worms. Carapace mites their carriers.
- Subcutaneous parasites on the skin of humans and animals for several years. The food is dead skin cells. A person infected with a tick, is constantly itching, redness of the skin.
- Dusty prefers to eat dust, down, feathers, peeled epidermis. It causes bronchial asthma in humans.
Haymakers - some scientists distinguish them in the third group.
In Russia, the area of distribution of ticks is very extensive and stretches from the European part to Siberia and the Far East. They prefer to settle in well-humid places, among high grass, forests, along the banks of forest streams, near springs, and footpaths.
Their favorite places are trails framed by grass. This is due to the fact that animals, people whose smell attracts ticks move them along them. Deep in the forest their concentration is much less. Not only in the forests you can encounter dangerous insects, but also in the meadows, by the rivers.
How many live
There are many types of ticks, each has its own life cycle. Consider the Ixodes tick. His life is divided into four periods:
- Imago (adult).
Each stage takes a certain time. It happens several weeks, and sometimes several months. It all depends on the availability of adequate food and weather conditions. The full cycle of the taiga tick is at least 6 months, and sometimes it lasts for 8-10 years. On average, they live 2 years. Each subsequent stage is impossible without blood saturation, so until the next owner is found, life seems to freeze.
Mite without food exists for years, waiting for the onset of favorable conditions for the transition to the next stage of development.
The bed parasite has a life expectancy of about four months. It all depends on the cleanliness of the owners, how often cleaning is carried out using special tools. The bed mite does not tolerate fresh air and sunlight.
How people and animals are attacked
Two types are especially dangerous to humans: Ixodes and Argas. How do they get on the host body? Argas mites do not consider a person to be the main object of nutrition, so they rarely attack him. Ixodic parasites most often attack people during their time in nature. Pincers are inactive. Usually they sit in the grass and do not climb above 50 cm from the ground. While waiting for a potential victim, they may freeze on the blade for several months.
Parasites are placed, spreading legs. They have sensitive receptors that help to feel the approach of a warm-blooded object within a few meters. Paws have tenacious hooks, and as soon as they are touched by an animal or a person, they immediately cling to clothes or wool. Then they get to the open skin, are fixed and begin to suck blood.
Tick saliva contains not only viruses dangerous for humans, but also various dietary supplements that also cause harm. Getting into the blood, saliva has the following effect:
- Anesthesia, which prevents time to notice the bloodsucker.
- The destruction of the walls of blood vessels, which ensures the smooth flow of blood into the insect's proboscis.
Not all ticks contain viruses, but the danger of infection is high. Therefore, even if we were able to quickly detect the parasite, we must take it to the laboratory and find out if the individual is dangerous or not. If viruses are present, start treatment quickly.
What diseases suffer
- Tick-borne encephalitisaffecting the nervous system, causing inflammation of the brain. Without timely treatment is fatal.
- Borreliosis - Another dangerous disease that affects the central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Can be treated with antibiotics. If time does not reveal, disability threatens.
- Hemorrhagic fever. Viruses inhibit the activity of almost all internal organs. Without timely treatment, death is possible.
- Typhus Infectious disease with fever, stupefaction and intoxication.
Animals also suffer from parasite bites. Without the help of a veterinarian death occurs.
Vaccination against encephalitis ticks for people
To develop a stable immunity against encephalitis in the body, vaccination is carried out in two stages. The first vaccination is done in the fall. In this case, by the spring a person will already be protected from an insidious disease. Next vaccination in a month, at the beginning of winter. A second vaccination is allowed after 3 months. Such a scheme guarantees security in the event of a tick attack. Revaccination is carried out in a year or 9 months.
There is another scheme. The second vaccination is done after 2 weeks, after which after 3 months they make the third. Repeat the scheme annually.
Types of vaccines
- From domestic vaccines use "EnceVir". Not recommended for children.
- Encevir Neo is suitable for children and adults.
- The German drug "FSME Immun" and the Austrian "Encepur" have recommended themselves well. They are remarkably tolerated even from the age of one.
Where to do
In the Far East, which is considered to be an unfavorable region in terms of tick-borne encephalitis, scheduled vaccinations are being carried out. Medical institutions are waiting for citizens on the dates approved by the state sanitary and epidemiological service and at the place of work. Children are vaccinated in schools and clinics.
People who are not shown compulsory vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis, but there is a desire, may apply to paid clinics or the usual district, but on a paid basis. If you plan to travel from the central regions of Russia to the Far East, then you must first be vaccinated. The area of distribution of the dangerous tick increases every year and the vaccine is available in almost all regions of the country.
How much is
Price depends on the manufacturer. Domestic drugs are more available, their cost is in the range of 550-750 rubles. Imported funds are more expensive, around two thousand rubles. Scheduled vaccinations in unfavorable areas are free.
Can children be vaccinated?
Encephalitis vaccination for children is allowed from the year. For them, the FMCE Immun Junior and the children’s Encepture form are assigned.
Is vaccination harmful?
Vaccination is considered safe, but there are a number of contraindications for which it is forbidden to do it.
- Allergic reaction.
- Reduced immunity.
- Acute infections.
- Pregnancy and the first months after birth.
- Acute and chronic diseases of the liver, kidneys.
Sometimes there are side effects and adverse reactions of the body to vaccine input.
- In the area of vaccination appears redness and compaction. It usually takes about five days.
- Often there is a slight increase in temperature.
- There are reactions similar to a viral infection: general malaise, joint, headaches. The help of a specialist will be required.
- Allergic reaction, up to the development of anaphylactic shock.
- It happens that there is a high temperature and lasts too long, there is suppuration at the injection site, convulsions. This happens when using an expired vaccine or its improper storage. For these symptoms, see your doctor right away.
Folk ways to protect against ticks
Folk remedies are available, safe and effective. Some of them are scared away, others are neutralized, others do both.
- Essential oils. Fill a glass with a capacity of 100 ml with water and add several oils there: eucalyptus, clove, spruce and tea tree oil, half a teaspoon each. Stir well, smear exposed skin, sprinkle clothing. Parasites do not tolerate these odors, and will not attack.
- Geranium. Mix 2 tsp. plant oils with the same amount of alcohol in a glass of water. Store the mixture in a container with a tight lid. Within six months, the solution perfectly preserves the properties. It is sprayed onto clothing and exposed skin.
- Apple vinegar. It will take: 50 ml of apple cider vinegar, 10 ml of any liquid soap, a little ointment "Asterisk" on the tip of a teaspoon, 200 ml of water. Mix everything thoroughly. Place in vial with cap. Before walking, rub open skin.
- Garlic. You can eat a clove of garlic, lubricate their hands, neck, calves and other open areas of the body.
- Ants People working in the forest for a long time have in stock a proven method of protection against bloodsuckers. Outerwear put for a quarter of an hour in an anthill. Then they shake off the insects. Thus, they are protected from the attack of parasites. Pharmaceutical formic alcohol may be used. Lubricate their clothing and skin.
- Vanillin. Dissolve the bag of spices in a liter of water, boil, cool and rub the skin, drip clothes. Ticks smell vanilla is also unpleasant.
When hiking in the forest, you need to choose the right clothes. It should be with long sleeves, bright colors, so that individuals can be immediately seen on it. On his feet, pants tucked into rubber boots and a hat.
Folk remedies rather quickly disappear, so after an hour or two, you should repeat the treatment.
Purchased chemistry against ticks: the pros and cons
Aerosol anti-mite "Deadly force" - 3 in 1
It acts against ticks, mosquitoes, midges, other blood-sucking, living in different climatic zones.
- Fights parasites instantly.
- The drug is long-acting (up to 15 days).
- Easy to apply.
- It is allowed to process in addition to clothing and open areas of the body.
- Not washed off even when swimming in the river.
- Suitable for children.
- Minimal risk of an allergic reaction.
☞ Disadvantages: with intensive application may adversely affect health.
- Suitable for children and adults.
- Low toxicity.
- Scares off parasites, does not allow them to approach.
- Does not wash off with ingress of water.
- Does not cause an allergic reaction.
- Without smell.
- Affordable price.
- Acts only against ticks.
- There are side effects.
- Scares off bloodsuckers, but does not kill.
Aerosol "Gardex Extreme"
Effectively acts against any harmful insects, including ticks.
- The smell is neutral.
- For children and adults.
- Quickly destroys parasites.
- Available at a price.
- There are allergic reactions.
- Apply only on clothing.
What to do if the tick has bitten and stuck
To remove the tick, it is better to turn to doctors, but if there is no such possibility, you will have to try to remove the parasite that sucked itself. The longer he sucks blood, the higher the chance of becoming infected with a dangerous disease.
Is it possible to try to take off yourself and how
Pulling out at home should be very careful not to rupture the body. Use for this curved tweezers, which is sold in pet stores and pharmacies. They try to grab an insect closer to the trunk and then begin to pull up, simultaneously rotating it. It is usually enough to rotate 1-3 times to extract completely.
In the absence of tweezers, fit the usual thread. She tied the mite body closer to the nose and begin to swing, gradually pulling out. If the head comes off, you should try to remove it as a thorn with a needle, and then treat the skin with alcohol.
After extraction, it is necessary to bring an insect for analysis to the laboratory, and consult a doctor, clarify further actions. You may need to be examined for infection.
Removal in hospital
Remove the parasite sucked best in the hospital. An experienced surgeon will remove a dangerous insect with the help of a suitable instrument, process the bite site, direct it to the tests. They will check the tick itself for the presence of encephalitis viruses and the bitten person.
Where to take a tick on the analyzes
After the tick is removed, it must be placed in a container and taken for examination. This is done by both public and private institutions.
- Sanitary and epidemiological stations.
- Emergency checkpoints, clinics, hospitals.
- Private medical facilities.
Simultaneously with the study of the tick, the doctor will send for tests to, if necessary, to start treatment in a timely manner.
- Going to the forest, always dress properly - cover all areas of the body with clothes as much as possible, do not forget the headdress.
- To minimize the chance of a tick attack, take with you special protective equipment or some of the folk remedies, convenient ready-made sprays and aerosols.
- Periodically inspect clothing, exposed areas of the body, in time to notice the insect. Pay attention to the neck, armpits, groin area.
- The stores sell special costumes in which it is safe to walk in the woods.
A tick is difficult to immediately see or feel its bite, since the parasite's saliva contains an anesthetic and the person does not feel pain. And their bites happen quite often. The activity of bloodsuckers lasts almost all of the warm time, so it is important to observe precautions, because an arthropod can be a deadly threat.